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50 Years of FASD Research/Awareness/Action


Jones KL, Smith DW. Recognition of the fetal alcohol syndrome in early infancy.Lancet.1973;302(7836): 999-1001


Wood, Roger E.,DDS. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome: It’s implications for dentistry. Journal of the American Dental Association.1977 Sept:95(2):596-599


U.S. Surgeon General advises "total abstinence from drinking for pregnant women".

New York Times July, 18, 1981


President Ronald Reagan declares January 15 -21 1984 National Fetal Alcohol Syndrome Awareness Week 


Olson, HC, Streissguth AP, et al. Association of prenatal alcohol exposure with behavioral and learning problems in early adolescence. J Am Acad Child Adolesc Psychiatry. 1997 Sep;36(9):1187-94


May, Philip, Gossage, J. Phillip.Estimating the prevalence of fetal alcohol syndromeAlcohol Res Health. 2001; 25(3): 159–167


Alcohol Use and Binge Drinking Among Women of Childbearing Age — United States, 2006–2010

Weekly July 20, 2012 / 61(28);534-538.  Alcohol use among  pregnant women 7.6%. Binge drinking among  among pregnant women 1.4%


Huggins, Janet E., et al. Suicide attempts among adults with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: clinical considerations. Mental Health Aspects of Developmental Disabilities.2008;11(2):33-41

Franklin, Laureen, et al. Children with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Problem Behaviors and Sensory Processing. Am J Occup Ther​. May-Jun 2008;62(3):265-73


Jirikowic, Tracy, et al. Regulatory Behaviors and Stress Reactivity Among Infants at High Risk for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: An Exploratory Study. Journal of Mental Health Research in Intellectual Disabilities. 9:3; 171-188. DOI: 10.1080/19315864.2016.1183246

Bell, Stephanie H., et al.The remarkably high prevalence of epilepsy and seizure history in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2010 Jun;34(6):1084-9

James, Jan  E., et al. Sleep health issues for children with FASD: Clinical considerations. Int J Pediatr. 2010; 2010:1–7

Jirikowic,Tracy, et al. Children and Youth with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: Summary of Intervention Recommendations after Diagnosis. Intellect Dev Disabil. 2010 Oct;48(5):330-44


May, Philip, Ph.D. and Gossage, Phillip, Ph.D. Maternal Risk Factors for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcohol Res Health. 2011; 34(1): 15–26

Paley, Blair, Ph.D, O'Connor, Mary J. Ph.D. Behavioral Interventions for Children and Adolescents With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Alcohol Res Health. 2011; 34(1): 64–75

Carmichael Olson, Heather and Montague, Rachel A. An Innovative Look at Early Intervention


for Children Affected by Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Prenatal Alcohol Use and FASD: Diagnosis, Assessment, and


New Directions in Research and Multimodal Treatment, 2011, 64-107



Chen, Maida Lynn, et al. Sleep problems in children with fetal alcohol spectrum disorders. J Clin Sleep Med. 2012 Aug 15;8(4):421-9

Stephen, Julia M., et al. Delays in auditory processing identified in preschool children with FASD. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2012;36(10):1720-1727


Rachappa, Mallikarjuna and Nalawade, Triveni. Alcohol, It’s Effect on Dental Structures and the Role of a Dentist. J Alcohol Drug Depend. 2014 Jan;2(4):166. DOI: 10.4172/2329-6488.1000166


Heller, Michael and Burd, Larry. Review of ethanol dispersion, distribution, and elimination from the fetal compartment. Birth Defects Research (Part A) 100:277–283, 2014


Chasnoff, Ira J., et al. Misdiagnosis and Missed Diagnosis in Foster and Adopted Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure. Pediatrics 2015;135(2):264-270

Petrenko, Christie L. M. PhD. Positive Behavioral Interventions and Family Support for Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders. Curr Dev Disord Rep. 2015 Sep; 2(3): 199–209


CDC Vital Signs: Alcohol-Exposed Pregnancies — United States, 2011–2013 Weekly / February 5, 2016 / 65(4);91–97

The weighted prevalence of alcohol-exposed pregnancy risk among U.S. women aged 15–44 years was 7.3%. During a 1-month period, approximately 3.3 million women in the United States were at risk for an alcohol-exposed pregnancy.

Cook, Jocelynn L. et al. Fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: a guideline for diagnosis across the lifespan. CMAJ. 2016 Feb 16; 188(3): 191–197.doi: 10.1503/cmaj.141593

Petrenko, Christie L. M., et al.The Association Between Parental Attributions of Misbehavior and Parenting Practices in Caregivers Raising Children with Prenatal Alcohol Exposure: A Mixed-Methods Study. Res Dev Disabil. 2016 Dec;59:255-267

Thanh NX, Jonsson E. Life Expectancy of People with Fetal Alcohol Syndrome. J Popul Ther Clin  Pharmacol.2016;23(1):e53-9

Hagan JF, Balachova T, Bertrand J, et al. Neurobehavioral Disorder Associated With Pre- natal Alcohol Exposure. Pediatrics. 2016;138(4): e20151553


During 2015–2017, 11.5% of pregnant U.S. women aged 18–44 years reported current drinking and 3.9% reported binge drinking in the past 30 days.

C. Smith, V., Matthias, P., N. Senturias, Y., M. Turchi, R., & F. Williams, J. (2018). Caring for patients with prenatal  alcohol exposure: A needs assessment. Journal of Population Therapeutics and Clinical Pharmacology, 24(1)

Jarlenski, Marian, et al. Polysubstance use among US women of reproductive age who use opioids for nonmedical reasons. Am J Public Health. 2017 August; 107(8): 1308–1310


May PA, et al. Prevalence of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders in 4 US Communities. JAMA. 2018 Feb 6;319(5):474-482   NIAAA Summary of research

Jacobson, Sandra W., et al. Efficacy of maternal choline supplementation during pregnancy in mitigating adverse effects of prenatal alcohol exposure on growth and cognitive function: A randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2018 July ;42(7): 1327–1341. doi:10.1111/acer.13769


McLaughlin, Susan A., et al. Listening Difficulties in Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders: More Than a Problem of Audibility. J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2019 May 21;62(5):1532-1548. doi: 10.1044/2018_JSLHR-H-18-0359

O'Connor, Mary J. et al. Suicide Risk in Adolescents with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum DisordersBirth Defects Res. 2019 Jul 15; 111(12): 822–828. doi: 10.1002/bdr2.1465

Flanagan, Katherine, et al. Neurocognitive functioning in young offenders with Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry 65 (2019) 101347



Wozniak, Jeffrey R., et al. Four-year follow-up of a randomized controlled trial of choline for

neurodevelopment in fetal alcohol spectrum disorder.J Neurodev Disord.​.2020 Mar 12;12(1):9


Flannigan, K and Temple, V. Difficulties in Daily Living Experienced by Adolescents, Transition-Aged Youth, and Adults With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. May 2020. Alcoholism Clinical and Experimental Research 44(1) DOI: 10.1111/acer.14385


Flanagan, Katherine, et al. Balancing the story of fetal alcohol spectrum disorder: A narrative review of the literature on strengths.Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2021 Dec; 45(12): 2448–2464.


Alcohol Consumption and Binge Drinking During Pregnancy Among Adults Aged 18–49 Years — United States, 2018–2020. During 2018–2020, 13.5% of pregnant adults in the United States reported current drinking, and 5.2% reported binge drinking in the past 30 days. 

Kautz-Turnbull, Carson. The Strengths and Positive Influences of Children With Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorders

Am J Intellect Dev Disabil. 2022 Sep 1; 127(5): 355–368.doi: 10.1352/1944-7558-127.5.355

Coles, Claire, et al. Prenatal alcohol exposure and mental health at midlife: A preliminary report on two longitudinal cohorts. Alcohol Clin Exp Res. 2022 Feb; 46(2): 232–242


Ernst, A.M.; Gimbel, B.A.; de Water, E.; Eckerle, J.K.; Radke, J.P.; Georgieff, M.K.; Wozniak, J.R. Prenatal and Postnatal Choline Supplementation in Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder. Nutrients 2022, 14,688. nu14030688


Pielage, M., El Marroun, H., Odendaal, H.J. et al. Alcohol exposure before and during pregnancy is associated with reduced fetal growth: the Safe Passage Study. BMC Med 21, 318 (2023) 

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